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The mythological tradition of southern Jeju Island is particularly divergent. A characteristic of Korean mythology is that the corpus is poorest in and near the capital of Seoul—the traditional political, economic, and cultural center of the country—and largest and most diverse in South Hamgyong Province and Jeju Island, the northernmost and southernmost peripheries respectively.

The two peripheral mythologies are the most archaic. The northern tradition is poorly understood because all of its area is now part of North Korea , where ethnographic research is not feasible.

Ethnologist Hong Tae-han calls it a grouping made for convenience. The ritual and entertainment role played by mythical narratives in other regions is served by an unusually developed tradition of ceremonial dance and theater.

According to a North Korean shaman who defected in , shamanism is widespread in modern North Korea and de facto condoned by the state, but the old songs and chants are no longer transmitted.

The west-central tradition is the mythological tradition of Seoul and its environs, and is distinguished by a strong emphasis on the sacred nature of the narratives.

The recitations are primarily addressed to the deity, not the physically present human worshippers. Formulaic phrases of the received tradition are frequently used.

Hong Tae-han characterizes the west-central mythology as the most "solemn" of Korean shamanic narratives.

The only specifically west-central narrative is Seongju-puri , explaining the origins of the patron god of the household.

In the city of Seoul itself, Princess Bari is the only shamanic narrative that is performed. In contrast to the west-central tradition, shamans of the East Coast and Gyeongsang tradition do much to make their narratives entertaining for the human worshippers.

Narratives are recited with an unusual level of detail, and the diversity of rhetorical techniques is unprecedented. Non-shamanic music, such as folk songs or Buddhist hymns, is integrated into the narrative at appropriate moments.

The Jeolla tradition is characterized by the reduced importance of the pan-Korean narratives, and the greater prominence of two other myths: the Jangja-puri , about a rich man who evades the gods of death, and the Chilseong-puri , featuring seven brothers who become gods of the Big Dipper.

The Jeju tradition also stresses the sanctity of the myths to the point that the performing shaman always sings the stories while facing the sacrificial altar, turning their back towards the human musicians and worshippers.

Several myths are already no longer performed by shamans. Several Korean shamanic narratives discuss the creation and primordial history of the world.

The most complete creation narratives are found in the northern and Jeju traditions, although one is known from the west-central tradition.

The northern and Jeju creation narratives share many elements. The two gods engage in three contests to decide who will rule.

In both, the final challenge is a flower-growing contest, in which the god that grows the better flower will take charge of humanity.

The benevolent god grows the better flower, but the usurper steals it while the other god sleeps. Having won this final contest, the usurper takes control of the world, but his unjust victory is the source of the evil and suffering of the present world.

Nonetheless, the northern and Jeju creation myths differ significantly in structure. In the north, the two protagonists are the creator Mireuk and the usurper Seokga.

Both are Buddhist names, referring to Maitreya and Shakyamuni respectively. But as the myths are otherwise unrelated to Buddhism, they are believed to be indigenous gods whose original names were at some point replaced.

The Jeju creation myth does not show Buddhist influence. There, he sleeps with an earthly woman and gives her the tokens of two gourd seeds as he returns to the heavens.

The woman gives birth to the twins Daebyeol-wang and Sobyeol-wang. When the brothers grow up, they plant the gourd seeds, which grow into gigantic vines that stretch into heaven.

The twins climb these vines to enter their father's realm. After two riddle contests, the younger twin wins the final flower contest through cheating and takes charge of the living.

But Daebyeol-wang establishes justice and order for his kingdom of the afterlife, where human souls go after death. The Jeseok bon-puri is the only truly pan-Korean myth, being found in all five regional traditions.

All versions share the following basic narrative structure. Danggeum-aegi is the virgin daughter of a nobleman.

When her parents and brothers are temporarily absent, a Buddhist priest comes on an alms round to her house. Danggeum-aegi gives alms in the form of rice, but the priest usually stalls for time by spilling all the rice that she gives, so that she must pick them up and offer them again.

In the Jeolla tradition, the priest then briefly grasps her wrist before leaving. In the west-central tradition, Danggeum-aegi eats three of the grains of rice that the priest has spilled.

In the northern and East Coast-Gyeongsang traditions, the girl offers the priest lodging in her father's room, but he refuses. He consecutively rejects her offer of every room in the mansion until she agrees to share her own room with her, where they have sex.

In any case, the girl becomes pregnant. When her family returns, they attempt to kill her to salvage the family's honor but fail, sometimes because rocks and earth fall on top of her parents and brothers while celestial light shines on the girl.

In the west-central and Jeolla traditions, they then expel her from the household. Danggeum-aegi successfully finds the priest and gives birth in his presence to sons, usually but not always triplets.

The priest abandons Buddhism and starts a family with her and the sons. In the Jeolla tradition, the myth ends here without anybody becoming gods.

In the west-central tradition, the priest confers divinity upon his sons with Danggeum-aegi as the Jeseok gods. In the northern and East Coast-Gyeongsang traditions, the family imprisons Danggeum-aegi in a pit or stone chest, but she miraculously survives and always gives birth to triplet sons.

Danggeum-aegi is then brought back to the family. In most versions, the triplets prove to be supernaturally talented, to the point that the other children repeatedly attempt to murder them out of envy but fail.

One day, the triplets ask who their father is. Danggeum-aegi usually gives the names of various trees as their father, but each tree tells the triplets that she is lying.

Once she admits the truth, the brothers go out to find their father. When they reach the priest's temple, he gives them a series of impossible tasks to verify their parentage.

This includes walking in water while wearing paper shoes without making any of the paper wet, crossing a river using only the bones of cows dead for three years, creating a rooster out of straw that perches and crows, and eating a fish and then vomiting it out alive.

The triplets succeed in all these tasks, and the priest acknowledges that they are his sons when he sees that his blood mingles with the triplets'.

The priest then makes Danggeum-aegi the goddess of childbirth, and the triplets either the Jeseok gods or a group of equivalent fertility deities.

In the northern and eastern traditions, the Jeseok bon-puri is often linked to the creation narrative, with the usurper Seokga being the same god as the priest who impregnates Danggeum-aegi.

The northern versions where the Jeseok bon-puri follows the creation narrative are thus the most archaic.

Despite the Buddhist veneer, the priest has many attributes of a sky god. In various versions, the priest is said to live in the palace of the heavens, or to ride into his home in the clouds on a paper horse, or to take Danggeum-aegi with him on a journey to heaven using a rainbow as a bridge.

The Princess Bari narrative is found in all regions except Jeju. Princess Bari is therefore a goddess closely associated with funeral rites.

Despite the large number of versions, most agree upon the basic story. The first major episode shared by almost all versions is the marriage of the king and queen.

The queen gives birth to six consecutive daughters who are treated luxuriously. When she is pregnant a seventh time, the queen has an auspicious dream.

The royal couple takes this as a sign that she is finally bearing a son and prepares the festivities. Unfortunately, the child is a girl.

The girl is then rescued by a figure such as the Buddha who regrets upon seeing her that he cannot take a woman as his disciple , a mountain god , or a stork.

Once Bari has grown, one or both of her parents fall gravely ill. They learn that the disease can only be cured through medicinal water from the Western Heaven.

In the majority of versions, the king and queen ask their six older daughters to go fetch the water, but all of them refuse.

Desperate, the king and queen order Princess Bari to be found again. In other versions, the royal couple is told in a dream or a prophecy to find their daughter.

In any case, Bari is brought to court. She agrees to go to the Western Heaven and departs, usually wearing the robes of a man. The details of Bari's quest differ according to the version.

Seeing through her disguise and remarking that she is a woman, the Buddha asks if she can truly go another three thousand leagues.

When Bari responds that she will keep going even if she is to die, he gives her a silk flower, which turns a vast ocean into land for her to cross.

When Bari finally arrives at the site of the medicinal water, she finds it defended by a supernatural guardian of varying nature who also knows that she is a woman, and obliges her to work for him and bear him sons.

When she returns, she finds that her parents or parent have already died and that their funerals are being held. She interrupts the funeral procession, opens the coffin lids, and resurrects her parents with the flowers and cures them with the water.

Each of the four mainland regional traditions feature distinctive elements of the Princess Bari. The west-central tradition is marked by strong Buddhist influence.

The rescuer is always the Buddha, who brings her to be raised by an old childless couple who are said to desire good karma.

For instance, the aforementioned s version mentions a wood of resurrection, although most other versions, including other west-central ones, involve a flower.

The northern tradition is represented by only two versions, both from South Hamgyong, but feature remarkable differences.

The princess does not reach the divine realm on her own, but through divine mercy. There, Bari steals the flowers of resurrection and flees.

She suddenly dies at the end of the narrative without becoming a goddess, and the mother that she resurrected dies soon after.

Her divine role in funerals as the link between the living world and the afterlife is replaced by the local goddess Cheongjeong-gaksi.

The Princess Bari has traditionally had an informal association with the royal court, and there is some evidence that its performance was patronized by King Jeongjo for the soul of his father, Prince Sado , who starved to death in a rice chest in According to modern Seoul shamans, an older version of the narrative had much jargon that was specific to the Korean court.

The vast majority of mainland shamanic narratives are localized, being transmitted only in one or two specific regional traditions.

The priest from the Golden Temple gives her a series of tasks in order to meet her husband again. This includes tearing out all her hair, twisting them into a rope, boring holes into her palms, and hanging from the rope in the middle of the air, with the rope passing through her palms, without screaming in pain; immersing her fingers in oil for three years, then praying while setting them on fire; and, finally, paving rough mountain roads with only what remains of her bare hands.

Despite succeeding in all this, she can only temporarily be reunited with Dorang-seonbi. In one version, the husband drowns in an accident the same day he is revived.

As he dies, he tells his wife to commit suicide so that they can meet again. Cheongjeong-gaksi hangs herself and is united with her husband in the afterlife.

Dorang-seonbi and Cheongjeong-gaksi were the most important of the deities invoked in the Mangmuk-gut funeral, and were even worshipped in Buddhist temples as second only to the Buddha himself.

In a typical version performed in , three of the Visitors, a group of male and female smallpox gods living in China, decide to visit Korea one day.

The goddess immediately kills him and consecutively kills six of his seven children with smallpox. When his wife begs for mercy, she lets the youngest live as a blind, immobile hunchback.

In return for her hospitality, the gods reward her and her granddaughter with great fortune. The crone also requests that the Visitors bless Cheolhyeon, Kim-jangja's fifteen-year-old son who she used to nurse.

The outraged gods kill Cheolhyeon, who becomes the youngest Visitor. They take pity on him and give the seventy-year-old Kim-jangja a new son.

The Jeju tradition has the richest mythology. The approximately dozen general bon-puri are known by all shamans, and involve deities with universal functions who are worshipped throughout the island.

The village-shrine bon-puri feature the guardian gods of a specific village, and are known only by shamans from the relevant village and its neighbors.

The ancestral bon-puri are about the patron gods of specific families or occupations; despite the name of the category, the god is often not perceived as an actual ancestor.

They are known only by shamans from the family or occupation in question, and are thus poorly understood. Many general bon-puri are clearly related to mainland narratives [] but have distinctive Jeju characteristics.

A typical example is the Chogong bon-puri , the Jeju version of the Jeseok bon-puri but with a very different ritual function. The early part of the Chogong bon-puri is similar to Jeseok bon-puri versions from Jeolla, the closest part of the mainland.

But in Jeju, the priest sends her away to give birth to the triplets alone. Unlike in Jeolla but like in the northern and eastern traditions, the triplets grow up fatherless.

When they best three thousand Confucian scholars in the civil service examinations , the jealous scholars murder Noga-danpung-agassi.

The triplets visit their father for help, and the priest makes them abandon their previous life and initiates them into shamanism.

The triplets hold the first shamanic rituals to successfully resurrect their mother, then become divine judges of the dead in order to bring justice to the scholars in the afterlife.

Village-shrine bon-puri are dedicated to the patron gods of one or multiple villages. In their most complete form, a carnivorous hunting god emerges from the hills of Jeju and an agricultural goddess arrives from overseas, often China.

The two marry and become village gods but then separate, generally because the goddess cannot stand the god's foul habits or the stench of his meat.

The goddess then gives birth to a third god, who is expelled from the island and goes on adventures abroad before returning to settle as the god of a different village.

Many villages have only parts of this structure, so that the bon-puri ends with the marriage or even involves only the emergence or arrival of the deity.

Among the most important village bon-puri is thus the one dedicated to the gods of Songdang shrine, who are the parents or grandparents of guardian gods of various villages and locations on the island.

As in Jeju, mainland Korean villages are traditionally associated with specific guardian deities. The Joseon dynasty strongly promoted Confucian-style worship for these gods over traditional shamanic practices.

By the late nineteenth century, most important rituals for village gods were being held by men according to Confucian norms, complete with invocations in Chinese instead of Korean.

The village mythology is also a living one. For example, it is now believed in the village of Soya, in North Gyeongsang Province , that the local guardian god accurately predicted which soldiers from the village would survive World War II.

In a study of ninety-four village-shrine myths from South Jeolla Province , Pyo In-ju divides the myths into two major categories, depending on whether the god is identified as a natural object or a human spirit.

The most prominent natural objects in the myths are trees, dragons , and rocks. While all the villagers crowded to the tree at this strange sound, the Japanese attacked.

Finding the village abandoned, they suspected a trap and left. A few days later, the Japanese returned and attempted to cut down the tree, but the tree dropped giant branches on them and killed them all.

The Japanese never dared approach the village afterwards. Ever since, locals have worshipped the tree as a god. The state-foundation myths have been adapted into several South Korean TV series, such as the popular series Jumong , but their potential in popular culture is limited due to the small size of the corpus and the lack of thematic diversity.

The shamanic narrative best known in South Korea is the Princess Bari [] in large part due to the work of feminists since the s, who highlighted the myth's characteristics as women's literature.

The goddess has since appeared in mediums as diverse as flash games to musicals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Household deities Korean mythology Korean philosophy History of suppression.

Roles and practices. Mu -dang Gut Muak Sinbyeong. Cosmogony Sansin Mengdu. Other East Asian folk religions.

Studies on Korean Shamanism. Main article: Dangun. Main article: Korean creation narratives. See also: Life replacement narratives. Main article: Bon-puri.

See also: Seonangsin. She concedes that this third type is generally combined with the northern-type myths. Cho Hyun-soul gives the Song of Dorang-seonbi and Cheongjeong-gaksi as an example of a myth supportive of patriarchy, and the Segyeong bon-puri as a highly subversive myth.

The worship of Sejon is also associated with fertility. The brief summaries of myths are from relevant entries in the Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture : Seng-gut , Donjeon-puri , Jin'gajang.

Minsokhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved July 1, Tamna Munhwa. Retrieved June 26, Dong-Asia Godaehak. Retrieved June 29, Han'guk Siga Yeon'gu.

Retrieved June 23, Seoul: Gilbeot. Retrieved May 31, Gubi Munhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 25, Yeoksa Minsokhak.

Retrieved June 30, Seoul: Jibmundang. Anthology of Seo's papers from the s and s. Han'guk gojeon munhak jeonjip.

Jeongsin Munhwa Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 24, Bigyo Minsokhak. Seoul: Minsogwon. Uri Eomun Yeon'gu. Han'guk Gojeon Yeon'gu.

Gukmunhak Yeon'gu. Han'guk Munhak Iron-gwa Bipyeong. Seoul: Worin. Silcheon Minsokhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 19, Jang Ju-geun jeojakjip.

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Several Korean shamanic narratives discuss the creation and primordial history of the world. The most complete creation narratives are found in the northern and Jeju traditions, although one is known from the west-central tradition.

The northern and Jeju creation narratives share many elements. The two gods engage in three contests to decide who will rule.

In both, the final challenge is a flower-growing contest, in which the god that grows the better flower will take charge of humanity.

The benevolent god grows the better flower, but the usurper steals it while the other god sleeps. Having won this final contest, the usurper takes control of the world, but his unjust victory is the source of the evil and suffering of the present world.

Nonetheless, the northern and Jeju creation myths differ significantly in structure. In the north, the two protagonists are the creator Mireuk and the usurper Seokga.

Both are Buddhist names, referring to Maitreya and Shakyamuni respectively. But as the myths are otherwise unrelated to Buddhism, they are believed to be indigenous gods whose original names were at some point replaced.

The Jeju creation myth does not show Buddhist influence. There, he sleeps with an earthly woman and gives her the tokens of two gourd seeds as he returns to the heavens.

The woman gives birth to the twins Daebyeol-wang and Sobyeol-wang. When the brothers grow up, they plant the gourd seeds, which grow into gigantic vines that stretch into heaven.

The twins climb these vines to enter their father's realm. After two riddle contests, the younger twin wins the final flower contest through cheating and takes charge of the living.

But Daebyeol-wang establishes justice and order for his kingdom of the afterlife, where human souls go after death.

The Jeseok bon-puri is the only truly pan-Korean myth, being found in all five regional traditions. All versions share the following basic narrative structure.

Danggeum-aegi is the virgin daughter of a nobleman. When her parents and brothers are temporarily absent, a Buddhist priest comes on an alms round to her house.

Danggeum-aegi gives alms in the form of rice, but the priest usually stalls for time by spilling all the rice that she gives, so that she must pick them up and offer them again.

In the Jeolla tradition, the priest then briefly grasps her wrist before leaving. In the west-central tradition, Danggeum-aegi eats three of the grains of rice that the priest has spilled.

In the northern and East Coast-Gyeongsang traditions, the girl offers the priest lodging in her father's room, but he refuses. He consecutively rejects her offer of every room in the mansion until she agrees to share her own room with her, where they have sex.

In any case, the girl becomes pregnant. When her family returns, they attempt to kill her to salvage the family's honor but fail, sometimes because rocks and earth fall on top of her parents and brothers while celestial light shines on the girl.

In the west-central and Jeolla traditions, they then expel her from the household. Danggeum-aegi successfully finds the priest and gives birth in his presence to sons, usually but not always triplets.

The priest abandons Buddhism and starts a family with her and the sons. In the Jeolla tradition, the myth ends here without anybody becoming gods.

In the west-central tradition, the priest confers divinity upon his sons with Danggeum-aegi as the Jeseok gods.

In the northern and East Coast-Gyeongsang traditions, the family imprisons Danggeum-aegi in a pit or stone chest, but she miraculously survives and always gives birth to triplet sons.

Danggeum-aegi is then brought back to the family. In most versions, the triplets prove to be supernaturally talented, to the point that the other children repeatedly attempt to murder them out of envy but fail.

One day, the triplets ask who their father is. Danggeum-aegi usually gives the names of various trees as their father, but each tree tells the triplets that she is lying.

Once she admits the truth, the brothers go out to find their father. When they reach the priest's temple, he gives them a series of impossible tasks to verify their parentage.

This includes walking in water while wearing paper shoes without making any of the paper wet, crossing a river using only the bones of cows dead for three years, creating a rooster out of straw that perches and crows, and eating a fish and then vomiting it out alive.

The triplets succeed in all these tasks, and the priest acknowledges that they are his sons when he sees that his blood mingles with the triplets'.

The priest then makes Danggeum-aegi the goddess of childbirth, and the triplets either the Jeseok gods or a group of equivalent fertility deities.

In the northern and eastern traditions, the Jeseok bon-puri is often linked to the creation narrative, with the usurper Seokga being the same god as the priest who impregnates Danggeum-aegi.

The northern versions where the Jeseok bon-puri follows the creation narrative are thus the most archaic.

Despite the Buddhist veneer, the priest has many attributes of a sky god. In various versions, the priest is said to live in the palace of the heavens, or to ride into his home in the clouds on a paper horse, or to take Danggeum-aegi with him on a journey to heaven using a rainbow as a bridge.

The Princess Bari narrative is found in all regions except Jeju. Princess Bari is therefore a goddess closely associated with funeral rites.

Despite the large number of versions, most agree upon the basic story. The first major episode shared by almost all versions is the marriage of the king and queen.

The queen gives birth to six consecutive daughters who are treated luxuriously. When she is pregnant a seventh time, the queen has an auspicious dream.

The royal couple takes this as a sign that she is finally bearing a son and prepares the festivities. Unfortunately, the child is a girl.

The girl is then rescued by a figure such as the Buddha who regrets upon seeing her that he cannot take a woman as his disciple , a mountain god , or a stork.

Once Bari has grown, one or both of her parents fall gravely ill. They learn that the disease can only be cured through medicinal water from the Western Heaven.

In the majority of versions, the king and queen ask their six older daughters to go fetch the water, but all of them refuse.

Desperate, the king and queen order Princess Bari to be found again. In other versions, the royal couple is told in a dream or a prophecy to find their daughter.

In any case, Bari is brought to court. She agrees to go to the Western Heaven and departs, usually wearing the robes of a man.

The details of Bari's quest differ according to the version. Seeing through her disguise and remarking that she is a woman, the Buddha asks if she can truly go another three thousand leagues.

When Bari responds that she will keep going even if she is to die, he gives her a silk flower, which turns a vast ocean into land for her to cross.

When Bari finally arrives at the site of the medicinal water, she finds it defended by a supernatural guardian of varying nature who also knows that she is a woman, and obliges her to work for him and bear him sons.

When she returns, she finds that her parents or parent have already died and that their funerals are being held. She interrupts the funeral procession, opens the coffin lids, and resurrects her parents with the flowers and cures them with the water.

Each of the four mainland regional traditions feature distinctive elements of the Princess Bari. The west-central tradition is marked by strong Buddhist influence.

The rescuer is always the Buddha, who brings her to be raised by an old childless couple who are said to desire good karma.

For instance, the aforementioned s version mentions a wood of resurrection, although most other versions, including other west-central ones, involve a flower.

The northern tradition is represented by only two versions, both from South Hamgyong, but feature remarkable differences. The princess does not reach the divine realm on her own, but through divine mercy.

There, Bari steals the flowers of resurrection and flees. She suddenly dies at the end of the narrative without becoming a goddess, and the mother that she resurrected dies soon after.

Her divine role in funerals as the link between the living world and the afterlife is replaced by the local goddess Cheongjeong-gaksi.

The Princess Bari has traditionally had an informal association with the royal court, and there is some evidence that its performance was patronized by King Jeongjo for the soul of his father, Prince Sado , who starved to death in a rice chest in According to modern Seoul shamans, an older version of the narrative had much jargon that was specific to the Korean court.

The vast majority of mainland shamanic narratives are localized, being transmitted only in one or two specific regional traditions.

The priest from the Golden Temple gives her a series of tasks in order to meet her husband again. This includes tearing out all her hair, twisting them into a rope, boring holes into her palms, and hanging from the rope in the middle of the air, with the rope passing through her palms, without screaming in pain; immersing her fingers in oil for three years, then praying while setting them on fire; and, finally, paving rough mountain roads with only what remains of her bare hands.

Despite succeeding in all this, she can only temporarily be reunited with Dorang-seonbi. In one version, the husband drowns in an accident the same day he is revived.

As he dies, he tells his wife to commit suicide so that they can meet again. Cheongjeong-gaksi hangs herself and is united with her husband in the afterlife.

Dorang-seonbi and Cheongjeong-gaksi were the most important of the deities invoked in the Mangmuk-gut funeral, and were even worshipped in Buddhist temples as second only to the Buddha himself.

In a typical version performed in , three of the Visitors, a group of male and female smallpox gods living in China, decide to visit Korea one day.

The goddess immediately kills him and consecutively kills six of his seven children with smallpox. When his wife begs for mercy, she lets the youngest live as a blind, immobile hunchback.

In return for her hospitality, the gods reward her and her granddaughter with great fortune. The crone also requests that the Visitors bless Cheolhyeon, Kim-jangja's fifteen-year-old son who she used to nurse.

The outraged gods kill Cheolhyeon, who becomes the youngest Visitor. They take pity on him and give the seventy-year-old Kim-jangja a new son.

The Jeju tradition has the richest mythology. The approximately dozen general bon-puri are known by all shamans, and involve deities with universal functions who are worshipped throughout the island.

The village-shrine bon-puri feature the guardian gods of a specific village, and are known only by shamans from the relevant village and its neighbors.

The ancestral bon-puri are about the patron gods of specific families or occupations; despite the name of the category, the god is often not perceived as an actual ancestor.

They are known only by shamans from the family or occupation in question, and are thus poorly understood. Many general bon-puri are clearly related to mainland narratives [] but have distinctive Jeju characteristics.

A typical example is the Chogong bon-puri , the Jeju version of the Jeseok bon-puri but with a very different ritual function. The early part of the Chogong bon-puri is similar to Jeseok bon-puri versions from Jeolla, the closest part of the mainland.

But in Jeju, the priest sends her away to give birth to the triplets alone. Unlike in Jeolla but like in the northern and eastern traditions, the triplets grow up fatherless.

When they best three thousand Confucian scholars in the civil service examinations , the jealous scholars murder Noga-danpung-agassi. The triplets visit their father for help, and the priest makes them abandon their previous life and initiates them into shamanism.

The triplets hold the first shamanic rituals to successfully resurrect their mother, then become divine judges of the dead in order to bring justice to the scholars in the afterlife.

Village-shrine bon-puri are dedicated to the patron gods of one or multiple villages. In their most complete form, a carnivorous hunting god emerges from the hills of Jeju and an agricultural goddess arrives from overseas, often China.

The two marry and become village gods but then separate, generally because the goddess cannot stand the god's foul habits or the stench of his meat.

The goddess then gives birth to a third god, who is expelled from the island and goes on adventures abroad before returning to settle as the god of a different village.

Many villages have only parts of this structure, so that the bon-puri ends with the marriage or even involves only the emergence or arrival of the deity.

Among the most important village bon-puri is thus the one dedicated to the gods of Songdang shrine, who are the parents or grandparents of guardian gods of various villages and locations on the island.

As in Jeju, mainland Korean villages are traditionally associated with specific guardian deities. The Joseon dynasty strongly promoted Confucian-style worship for these gods over traditional shamanic practices.

By the late nineteenth century, most important rituals for village gods were being held by men according to Confucian norms, complete with invocations in Chinese instead of Korean.

The village mythology is also a living one. For example, it is now believed in the village of Soya, in North Gyeongsang Province , that the local guardian god accurately predicted which soldiers from the village would survive World War II.

In a study of ninety-four village-shrine myths from South Jeolla Province , Pyo In-ju divides the myths into two major categories, depending on whether the god is identified as a natural object or a human spirit.

The most prominent natural objects in the myths are trees, dragons , and rocks. While all the villagers crowded to the tree at this strange sound, the Japanese attacked.

Finding the village abandoned, they suspected a trap and left. A few days later, the Japanese returned and attempted to cut down the tree, but the tree dropped giant branches on them and killed them all.

The Japanese never dared approach the village afterwards. Ever since, locals have worshipped the tree as a god.

The state-foundation myths have been adapted into several South Korean TV series, such as the popular series Jumong , but their potential in popular culture is limited due to the small size of the corpus and the lack of thematic diversity.

The shamanic narrative best known in South Korea is the Princess Bari [] in large part due to the work of feminists since the s, who highlighted the myth's characteristics as women's literature.

The goddess has since appeared in mediums as diverse as flash games to musicals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Household deities Korean mythology Korean philosophy History of suppression. Roles and practices. Mu -dang Gut Muak Sinbyeong.

Cosmogony Sansin Mengdu. Other East Asian folk religions. Studies on Korean Shamanism. Main article: Dangun. Main article: Korean creation narratives.

See also: Life replacement narratives. Main article: Bon-puri. See also: Seonangsin. She concedes that this third type is generally combined with the northern-type myths.

Cho Hyun-soul gives the Song of Dorang-seonbi and Cheongjeong-gaksi as an example of a myth supportive of patriarchy, and the Segyeong bon-puri as a highly subversive myth.

The worship of Sejon is also associated with fertility. The brief summaries of myths are from relevant entries in the Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture : Seng-gut , Donjeon-puri , Jin'gajang.

Minsokhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved July 1, Tamna Munhwa. Retrieved June 26, Dong-Asia Godaehak. Retrieved June 29, Han'guk Siga Yeon'gu.

Retrieved June 23, Seoul: Gilbeot. Retrieved May 31, Gubi Munhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 25, Yeoksa Minsokhak. Retrieved June 30, Seoul: Jibmundang.

Anthology of Seo's papers from the s and s. Han'guk gojeon munhak jeonjip. Jeongsin Munhwa Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 24, Bigyo Minsokhak.

Seoul: Minsogwon. Uri Eomun Yeon'gu. Han'guk Gojeon Yeon'gu. Gukmunhak Yeon'gu. Han'guk Munhak Iron-gwa Bipyeong.

Seoul: Worin. Silcheon Minsokhak Yeon'gu. Retrieved June 19, Jang Ju-geun jeojakjip. Retrieved June 6, Anthology of Chang's papers from the s onwards.

Han'guk Musokhak. Korea University. Ilbon-hak Yeon'gu. Gugeo Gukmunhak. Minjok Munhaksa Yeon'gu. Retrieved July 6, Han'guk Munhwa Yeon'gu. Chonnam National University.

Anthology of prior papers. Han'guk Minsokhak. Bruno, Antonetta Lucia In Buswell Jr. Religions of Korea in Practice.

Grayson, James H. London: Routledge. Pettid, Michael J. Korean Studies. Healing Through Subversion in Shamanic Narratives".

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